|18.104.22.168 Basic stowage methods, Part 1|
Stowage instructions and basic stowage methods
To be able to provide and follow appropriate instructions, it is necessary to be familiar with some of the fundamental concepts and principles which apply in this field. To ensure that they are well understood, some of them will be explained here.
"Stowage for ready access" or "Packing for ready access" means that a load must be immediately accessible. Ease of access may apply to a specific (intermediate) destination, i.e. that a given load must be readily accessible in for instance Bremen and can be unloaded without the need to move other loads.
Section 4.3.7 of the CTU guidelines state:
The amber light has been selected because the load has not yet been adequately secured.
CAP products in the European Community which are subject to customs checks should also be stowed for ready access, so that customs staff have immediate access to the goods. This avoids the need to restow:
"Top stowage" (occasionally "on-top-stowage") means no further items are stowed on top of the load. This instruction is not to ensure that a batch should be readily accessible, but is issued because packages are particularly sensitive or fragile. If stowage of this type is required, appropriate indications must be attached to the packages. Written instructions such as "Do not overstow", "Please load on top" etc. are not necessarily universally understood. Sensible, comprehensible markings can be more effective.
The original ISO symbol should be known universally. It must therefore be assumed that this symbol is the most likely to be understood.
"Stowing or packing correctly for a fork-lift truck or a crane" means that appropriate arrangements must be made to ensure that the goods can be lifted by a ground conveyor or lifting gear without requiring special preparation and without any time delay. The dimensions, strength and loading capacity of the aids used, such as squared lumber, wooden dunnage boards etc. must ensure that the goods do not suffer any damage during shipping. If necessary, stowage surfaces must be prepared with walking boards, boards, cargo items with a high loading capacity or other usable aids, so that work can be carried out safely and the batches that have already been loaded can be overstowed with other loads.
Bottom and intermediate dunnage must be arranged so that forks, strops, chains, claws and similar cargo handling equipment and slinging equipment can be used without any problems.
Tier means a layer or stack. It can mean either horizontal layers of cargo or cargo items stowed vertically one above the other. If circumstances do not make it clear from the outset what type of layer is meant, it makes sense to distinguish between a vertical tier and a horizontal tier.
The stowage position on board container ships is generally documented according to the bay-row-tier system or the bay-tier-row system. In this specific case, "tier" designates the horizontal layers of containers. Layers are counted from the bottom to the top.
Loaded upright or loaded on its side relates to the shape of the consignment items. In most cases, the meaning is clear.
The same applies for wheel rims, pipes, steel bars, narrow wire rod coils and other loads. It is also rare for these to be confused.
With cylindrical, or roller-shaped goods, the expression "upright" should really be used uniformly. Such cargo items are generally understood to be "upright" if
The expression "on its side" also has a standard meaning for the same goods. By definition, cargo is "on its side" if
Differences in understanding of these terms, sometimes regional, however, can lead to errors and misinterpretations and thus incorrect stowage.
Another problem arises if the length of the axis and the diameter are almost the same size. This can easily lead to misinterpretations of the terms in practice:
Incorrect expressions in the loading instructions or an incorrect interpretation of correct instructions frequently lead to damaged cargo. Such damage can be avoided if a reference is made in the stowage instructions to the orientation of the axis. Instead of the formulations "Load rolls upright" or "Load rolls on their sides", the expressions "Roll axis vertical" ("eye to the sky") or "Roll axis horizontal and transverse" or "Roll axis horizontal and longitudinal" should be used.
As already mentioned, the terms "upright" and "on its side" are clear for most cargo items such as billets, pipes, profiles, bars etc., but it can be necessary in certain cases to provide or request more precise stowage instructions, such as "lying on its side" etc.
Continued in section 22.214.171.124
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